Personal laws were first enacted during the British Raj, mainly for Hindu and Muslim citizens. The British feared resistance from community leaders and refrained from further interference in this domestic political sphere. The Indian state of Goa was separated from British India due to colonial rule in the former Portuguese Goa and Damaon, retaining a common family law known as the Goa Civil Code, and was therefore the only state in India to date with a unified civil code. Thus, the British gave the Indian public the advantage of self-government in their own internal affairs, with the Queen`s Proclamation of 1859 promising absolute non-interference in religious affairs.   Personal laws concerned inheritance, succession, marriage and religious ceremonies. The public sphere was governed by British and Anglo-Indian law concerning crime, land relations, contract law and the law of evidence – all of which applied equally to every citizen, regardless of religion.  The Uniform Civil Code (IAST: Samāna Nāgrika Saṃhitā) is a proposal in India to formulate and implement secular personal laws of citizens that apply equally to all citizens, regardless of their religion. Currently, the personal laws of the different communities are governed by their religious scriptures.  The introduction of a uniform civil code throughout the country is one of the controversial promises of India`s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party. This is an important issue regarding secularism in Indian politics and continues to be challenged by India`s Muslim groups and other religious groups and conservative sects in defense of Sharia and religious customs. Personal law differs from public law and includes marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption and alimony. Meanwhile, Article 25-28 of the Indian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion to Indian citizens and allows religious groups to manage their own affairs, Article 44 of the Constitution requires the Indian State to apply political principles and customary law to all Indian citizens while formulating national guidelines.   In October 2015, India`s Supreme Court reiterated the need for a unified civil code, stating: “This cannot be accepted, otherwise every religion will say that it has the right to decide various issues under its personal rights.
We strongly disagree with that. This must be done by a court decision.  On the 30th. In November 2016, Anglo-Indian intellectual Tufail Ahmad unveiled a 12-point draft document in which he cited no government effort since 1950. India`s Law Commission said in a 185-page consultation paper on August 31, 2018, that a unified civil code was “neither necessary nor desirable at this time,” adding that secularism could not contradict the plurality that prevailed in the country.   During the year, women`s organizations such as Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan and several others in particular opposed the practice and demanded further reforms of Muslim personal law.     George Makdisi argued that the madrasah certification system corresponded to the system of law schools in the West, from which the modern university system emerged. He quickly reached a national level by consulting with lawmakers, ministers and journalists.